The terms overweight and obesity refer to an
excess amount body of fat that may be detrimental
to health. Overweight and obesity are caused by an
energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories
expended when used as energy by the body. A steady body
weight is maintained when the calorie intake is equal to
the calories “burned.” When this calorie intake exceeds the
amount burned, the energy left over is stored as fat and eventually
a person starts to gain weight and is at an increased risk of becoming
overweight or obese.
Some drugs (antidepressants, steroids, and diabetes medications, for example) can cause weight gain. An individual’s behavior, socioeconomic status, culture, and environmental factors also contribute to overweight and obesity. In addition, hormones in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in fat cells themselves influence his or her metabolism, eating habits, and, ultimately, weight.
A heart attack is the death of a segment of heart muscle caused by a loss of blood supply. The blood is usually cut off when an artery supplying the heart muscle is blocked by a blood clot. If some of the heart muscle dies, a person experiences chest pain and electrical instability of the heart muscle tissue.
A stroke is a sudden interruption in the blood supply of the brain. Most strokes are caused by an abrupt blockage of arteries leading to the brain (ischemic stroke). Other strokes are caused by bleeding into brain tissue when a blood vessel bursts (hemorrhagic stroke).
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
High blood pressure (HBP or hypertension) is when your blood pressure, the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your blood vessels, is consistently too high.
Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder holds a digestive fluid called bile that's released into your small intestine.
Osteoarthritis (OA) causes inflammation in the joints and the breakdown and gradual loss of joint cartilage. As the cartilage wears down, a person experiences pain and difficulty with movement.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in some people who have high levels of uric acid in the blood. The acid can form needle-like crystals in a joint and cause sudden, severe episodes of pain, tenderness, redness, warmth and swelling.
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